When European explorers first came to Arkansas in the sixteenth century, they found the vast majority of the state covered by some type of forest or woodland. Within these general forest types were hundreds of species of woody plants and at least species of trees.
Ina total of kinds of woody plants were known to occur in the wild in Arkansas, comprising species plus another seventeen varieties and subspecies. Of these, can be considered trees, are best described as shrubsand sixty-two are woody vines. In some cases, it is difficult to draw a hard line between these categories, and various reference works differ in their criteria for each.
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For the purposes of these this entry, however, each category is defined as follows:. Trees are defined as perennial, woody plants that are greater than five meters sixteen feet in height at maturity; they often have a single stem or relatively few stems.
Shrubs are defined as perennial, often multi-stemmed woody or semi-woody plants usually less than five meters sixteen feet in height at maturity. This includes the bamboo members of the grass family which may be talleryuccas, the highbush members of the genus Rubus blackberries and raspberriesprickly-pear cacti, and dwarf palmettos. Woody vines are defined as perennial, woody or semi-woody twining, climbing, or trailing plants with relatively long stems.
Of the trees in Arkansas, thirty-five Two others are of uncertain native status. Eighteen 9. These species are rare in the state and may be at risk from loss of habitat, disease, or other factors.
All of these are designated in the table below. Arkansas is home to one tree that is thought to be endemic to Arkansas. Maple-leaf oak Quercus acerifolia is a small tree known from just four mountaintops in the Ouachita Mountains and Arkansas Valleywhere it is confined to high-elevation dry woodlands.
The largest genera of trees in Arkansas are the oaks Quercus ; thirty-one kinds considered trees, twenty-nine of which are nativethe maples Acer ; ten kinds, nine nativethe hickories Carya ; ten species, all nativethe plums and cherries Prunus ; eight species, six nativethe hawthorns Crataegus ; seven kinds considered trees, all nativethe elms Ulmus ; seven species, six nativethe hollies Ilex ; six species considered trees, four nativethe pines Pinus ; six species, two native and one of uncertain native statusthe magnolias Magnolia ; five species, four nativeand the ashes Fraxinus ; five species, all native.
Two species of native pine trees are widely distributed in Arkansas and are of great economic importance. Short-leaf pine Pinus echinata is a dominant species in large areas of the Interior Highlands Ozark and Ouachita mountains but is also widespread in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Loblolly pine Pinus taeda has been planted throughout the state but is considered native to the Gulf Coastal Plain, with a few rare pockets of natural occurrence in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and Ouachita Mountains.
Several other species of pine have been occasionally planted in Arkansas but are not naturalized to any great extent. Oaks are also of great importance, both ecologically and economically, in the forests of Arkansas. Thirty-two kinds of oaks are known to grow in the state, thirty-one of which are trees. The most common and widespread upland oak species in the state are white oak Quercus albasouthern red oak Q.
U.S. Forest Service
Common lowland oaks include overcup oak Q. Water hickory or bitter-pecan Carya aquatica occurs in the wettest bottomland hardwood forests. Some native tree species are colonizers of human-disturbed sites such as abandoned pastures and crop fields, cutover forests, and roadsides. Other species are typically found along major streams and rivers where natural disturbance from flooding favors species that reproduce abundantly and grow quickly.
Examples of such riverine species include box elder Acer negundosilver maple Acer saccharinumriver birch Betula nigrasugarberry Celtis laevigatahackberry Celtis occidentalisgreen ash Fraxinus pennsylvanicasycamore Platanus occidentaliseastern cottonwood Populus deltoidesblack willow Salix nigraand American elm Ulmus americana. Upland forests, while often dominated by pine, oak, and hickory, are also occupied by many other tree species. In more moist or nutrient-rich sites, other hardwood species may be found, including sugar maple Acer saccharumOhio buckeye Aesculus glabrapawpaw Asimina trilobabeech Fagus grandifoliadeciduous holly Ilex deciduaAmerican holly Ilex opacablack walnut Juglans nigraand basswood Tilia americana.
Not all of the tree species found in Arkansas are native to the state. Examples of non-native invasive trees in Arkansas include tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissimasilk-tree Albizia julibrissinChinese holly Ilex cornutaChinaberry Melia azedarachwhite mulberry Morus albaempress-tree or princess-tree Paulownia tomentosawhite poplar Populus albaperfumed cherry Prunus mahalebcallery pear Pyrus calleryanaand Chinese tallow-tree Triadica sebifera.
Diverse forests with the full range of tree species typical of pre-settlement Arkansas have declined in the last century as parts of the state were largely cleared for agricultureconverted to single-species primarily loblolly pine plantation forestry, or developed.
Some forest and woodland types are still widespread and abundant, but others have declined enough to be of conservation concern. Forest types that have experienced the greatest decline are those that are restricted to geographic regions where their geology, soilsclimatetopography, and location have made them highly profitable for conversion to other uses.This plants flowers like others in the Genera have the distinct aroma of Chocolate.
A key attribute important when creating gardens for the blind. Edwin B. Smith in his book "Keys to the Flora of Arkansas", The Ozark Society Foundationdescribes Berlandiera pumila as "Stem densely white-tomentose, the hairs fine and not spreading; upper surface of leaves smooth, with sparse tomentose hairs; mid-stem leaves usually evidently petiolate with rounded to truncate bases.
The stem is blanketed with tomentose hairs like you would not believe unless you saw it for yourself.
Other plant identification web sites show B. I greatly fear flying in the face of authority, but I must say that what is being shown as B.
And what about the species B. Well that question would drive me to a local pub if I were so lucky as to have a local pub. BONAP shows distribution maps for all three species. Perhaps the stems of the plants that I have photographed are nothing more than a whimsical trick by a grinning Mother Nature played on whoever it was who wrote this rambling.
Perhaps she would suggest, "Justice served! It does well in the East Texas heat since it's native to the East Texas area. I bought 5 plants at the Stephen F Austin fall plant sale. I hope to gather enough seeds to greatly increase my number of plants. The Annual Photo Contest is now open. Please take the time now to save any information you may want to keep.
Soft Green-Eyes Berlandiera pumila. One member has or wants this plant for trade. Gardeners' Notes: 2. Post a comment about this plant. Popular Plants. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the Davesgarden.
Asteraceae ass-ter-AY-see-ee Info. Berlandiera ber-lan-dee-AIR-uh Info.A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs. George A. Swanson Johns Hopkins University Press.
A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina. Richard D. Porcher and Douglas A. University of South Carolina Press. Robert K. Godfrey and J. University of Georgia Press. Autumn Leaves and Winter Berries in Arkansas. Carl G. Ozark Society Foundation. East Gulf Coastal Plain Wildflowers. Falcon Guide; Globe Pequot Press. Ralph W. University of Massachusetts Press. Field Guide to the Ferns and other Pteridophytes of Georgia. Snyder, Jr. University of GA Press. Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Florida.
Linda G. Florida Natural Areas Inventory. Flora of North America North of Mexico [online]. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds.
New York and Oxford. Flora of North America website. Flora of Virginia. Ritchie Bell and Bryan J. Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project Inc. Florida Wildflowers and Roadside Plants. Alan S. Weakley, J.The Floor is Lava
Christopher Ludwig, and John F.Every year, a list of books representing the literary heritage of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and the U. Each book is selected by a local Center for the Book or state library and most are for children and young readers. Why not read the book suggested for your state or district and then learn, through these books, about the other places that interest you?
Click on a state to view suggested titles by states or download the complete lists. Atwater and Ethan J. Atwater; illustrated by Mindy Dwyer. Miller and Patrick J. The Belle of LouisvilleMarie Bradby. Scott Fuqua. Collard, III. Marvel Volume 1: No NormalG. Willow Wilson and Adrian Alphona.
Torrez, Sandra Mathews, Richard Melzer. Basil E. FrankweilerE. Montileaux Lakota translation by Agnes Gay. Montileaux, Agnes Gay, translator. HelensPatricia Lauber.
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Jones selection Water StepsA. Zeises selection The AnybodiesN. Simon selection Swamplandia! Illinois selection Hello, Neighbor! Evans selection PiratesDavid L. Lukesh selection WorthA. Ohio selection American Moonshot: John F.
World War II Ordnance Plants
Oklahoma selection Bear is Awake! A True StoryM. Washington, D. That's Bad! Connect with the Library All ways to connect. Find Us On. Questions Ask a Librarian Contact Us.They are no longer available for download. Visualizations for Windows Media Player. Windows Media Player plug-ins.
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It sounds like it might be helpful to connect you to one of our Office support agents. Contact Support. Download a free language pack to see Windows in the language of your choice.Pelton's rose-gentian, Sabatia arkansana Gentianaceae. Photograph courtesy of John Pelton. The Vascular Flora of Arkansas Project is a cooperative effort among botanists, both within and outside of Arkansas. The Flora will include keys to taxa, descriptions, range maps, pertinent synonymy, and illustrations.
The Committee has met informally several times to lay the groundwork for the Flora. Over the expected eight to ten years for completion of the project, teams will also be in the field collecting herbarium specimens.
Gentry has assembled an impressive committee of botanists from colleges and universities across the state and even into Louisiana. On the above date, Dr. Gentry and his committee members heard presentations by other botanists who had worked on similar projects in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The final presentation was from botanists at the Missouri Botanical Garden who discussed the massive project directed there — The Vascular Flora of North America.
Gentry closed the day giving a charge to each participant, guest, and observer to tell at least twenty people about the project and what it will mean to us in the future. This is a great project to celebrate here on the twentieth anniversary of our founding.
More on the Vascular Project will be discussed at the fall meeting late in September at Heber Springs. Arkansas Native Plant Society. Skip to content. Share this: Twitter Facebook Pinterest. This entry was posted in Community Event. Bookmark the permalink. Join 6, other followers. Search for:. Blog at WordPress. Post to Cancel.The uses for the locations included the manufacture of detonators, fuses, primers and bombs; proving grounds for testing munitions; rocket loading, testing and storage; and producing chemical agents needed in bombs and explosives.
Four of the plants were government owned and contractor operated GOCO. These plants were over seen by a military staff, but a private corporation had the contract to operate the plants. All the plants depended heavily on civilian workers for their main work force. The wartime industries brought needed money and jobs for Arkansas citizens and contributed greatly to the economy of Arkansas. After the war, the state never returned to heavy agricultural-based economy that had been present before World War II, developing instead a more industrialized economy.
Arkansas business and political leaders lobbied for the plants and pointed out the advantages of locating plants in Arkansas. Arkansas had unlimited supplies of natural gas and coal. Arkansas offered strategic locations away from the coastal areas of the United States where the government felt the plants were safer from foreign attack and away from large population centers but with a large available labor force.
With the able bodied men needed for military service, the job of manning the defense plants fell to people that had never been in the labor force before or who had been employed in low-paying work.
Handicapped people, women many who were housewives and had never worked outside the homeyoung people, older adults, and African Americans were sought for employment. Boys and girls as young as fourteen and fifteen were hired for work.
These young people changed their papers or lied about their age, and the need for workers was so great that the employment officials did not check up on the ages. African Americans were encouraged to apply, and as segregation was still practiced in Arkansas at this time, separate areas of the employment facilities were set aside for the African Americans who came to apply for work.
The ordnance sites shared many of the same features. First, the land areas for the plants were surveyed and taken over by the United States government by condemnation proceedings. This action displaced the people living in those land areas, and the people had to move out in a short period of time. Housing shortages developed in many areas as workers from all over the state and even out of state came to work on the construction phases of the plants.
Local people were given preference. Trailer camps developed, and area residents rented out about anything they had. All but one of the plants built housing for their top military personnel, and in the case of the contractor-operated plants, housing was provided for top operating officials. During the operating phase of the plants, most of the workers came from areas within about a fifty-mile radius of the sites, but workers from further away also came, and these workers especially had problems with housing.
Transportation was a problem, bus and rail services were developed, and individual passenger vehicles were used to transport workers. The plants developed into almost self-contained communities. Sewer systems and water systems were developed.
Roads and railroads were built within the sites. Spur lines were built to connect to outside rail services. The plants had their own hospitals, fire departments, maintenance departments, and cafeterias, and several of the plants had recreation facilities on the grounds.
All the sites were fenced, plant guards patrolled the sites, and security was very tight. Several of the plants produced their own newsletters. The plant was the first national defense industry approved for the state, and at the peak of production on November 22,14, workers were employed at the plant. The plant was named the Arkansas Ordnance Plant and was one of the first plant of its kind in the nation. The facility had several assembly lines that occupied clusters of buildings where fuses, boosters, detonators, and primers were produced.
The first assembly line was completed on March 4,and additional lines were all operational by June of The majority of the production line workers were women called WOWs women ordnance workers. In August12, employees were working at the plant, and about seventy-five percent of these were female. By December 31,there were 3, African Americans working four lines and comprising twenty-four percent of the work force.